Atikamekw knowledge, culture and language in Wikimedia projects

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The project Atikamekw knowledge, culture and language in Wikimedia projects aims to increase the presence of Atikamekw knowledge, culture and language on Wikimedia projects by developing Wikipedia in Atikamekw language and uploading Documents such as archive photos and maps in Wikimedia Commons. The long-term impact of the project is to create good practice documentation and to develop a toolkit to replicate at different scales for similar projects or other Aboriginal communities in Canada.

Project definition[edit]

The aim of this project is to increase the presence of the Atikamekw (a Canadian First Nation) knowledge, culture and language on Wikimedia projects by developing the Wikipedia in the Atikamekw language (Wikipetia atikamekw nehirowisiw), and uploading documents such as archive pictures and maps about the Atikamekw culture and history on Wikimedia Commons. The long term impact of this project is to also document good practices as well as developing a toolkit allowing to reproduce and scale it to perform similar projects with other Canadian Indigenous communities.

Visit of Matakan camp meeting Grand Chief Constant Awashish

Context[edit]

Aboriginal Communities Outreach[edit]

Manawan, 1971

The Aboriginal Communities Outreach Project of Wikimedia Canada has the vision to make knowledge freely available in all Canadian languages and to preserve those languages through the use of Wikimedia projects. The goal of this outreach project is to reach Canadian Aboriginal communities and to familiarize indigenous languages speakers with Wikipedia (and possibly other Wikimedia projects such as Wikitionary and Wikimedia Commons) in order for them to become active contributors developing content. We understand that language's importance to Aboriginal people is immense and bears an important social and emotional aspect. This project is also aligned with article 13 of the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous People on the right to preserve, revitalize and develop indigenous languages. Canadian indigenous languages are also an integral part of the Canadian culture making the country one of the most linguistically diverse in the world. The "Atikamekw knowledge, culture and language in Wikimedia projects" project fits within this strategy as a starting block and a pilot project to be emulated in the future for other Canadian Aboriginal communities.

The Atikamekw Nation[edit]

The members of the Atikamekw nation call themselves Nehirowisiw and refer to their ancestral territory as Nitaskinan ("Our Land"). The community lives about 300 km north of Montreal, in three villages (Manawan, Obedjiwan and Wemotaci ) located on an ancestral territory of 80 000 km2 in central Quebec. Up until the 1950s, the Atikamekw Nehirowisiw maintained a semi-nomadic and autonomous way of life, based on hunting, picking and fur trade. Their system of knowledge is rooted in a symbiotic relationship with the forest, and their cultural transmission rely on oral tradition. Some of these knowledges are considered "common knowledges", and may freely be shared with all. Others are considered "specific" to a family or an individual (e.g. crafts, maps of resources), or "sacred" and secret (e.g. use of medicinal plants). Among Canadian First Nations, the Atikamekw community has one of the best preserved use of its native language with nearly 6,600 speakers (95% of its total population). The Atikamekw language was standardized with the help of the Atikamekw Linguistic Institute (ILA), founded in 1986. It is still the teaching langage in elementary schools of the nation. The main second language of the community is French.

The sedentarization politics and assimilation methods induced a very abrupt lifestyle change for the community. Children from 6 to 17 years old were sent to residential schools far away from their villages and families, for 10 months a year. This educational policy remained in place until the mid-1970s, damaging the intergenerational transmission of knowledge and culture, and causing trauma in the community.[1] For 35 years, the Atikamekw Nehirowisiw have been negotiating with the Goverment of Canada regarding use of their ancestral land, reclaiming autonomy and self-determination. In 2014, the Atikamek nation issued a manifesto declairing their sovereignty over Nitaskinan.


Wikipedia workshop at Otapi school in Manawan (Oct 2016)
Wikipetcia workshop (May 2017)
Wikipetcia committee discussing Wikimania panel, article labels, summer internship, Lingua Libre project, etc.
Winners of the photo contest. Sakay Ottawa director of Otapi School, Jonah Newashish, Wikwasa Newashish Petiquay, Benoit Rochon president of Wikimedia Canada.
Photo contest. Director Sakay Ottawa congratulating the participants. See pictures: Commons:Category:Nitaskinan en photos

Previous projects[edit]

This project is the continuation of a previous project in the Atikamekw community of Manawan held in 2013 and 2014. The pedagogic project called Projet Wikipetia Atikamekw started in 2013 in Manawan. Its goal was to develop the Atikamekw section of the Cree Wikipedia. Since the Atikamekw is a language of the Cree language family, at this time, it was included in this Wikipedia and no specific Wikimedia project in Atikamekw, nor any content in this language, existed prior to this project. During both editions, the students of the Otapi High School of Manawan were asked to write articles in their native language on the Atikamekw Wikipedia under the supervision and the training of their computer science teacher (Bilbo40) and the support of the community's language keeper (Jean-Paul Echaquan) and a graduate linguist student (Kiackw) as well as the technical support of an experienced Wikipedian (Amqui). Some teachers also took the initiative to write articles themselves. During those projects the Atikamekw Wikipetia saw the creation of more than 100 articles, which is remarkable for a language that had no Wikipedia article at all not even two years ago. The project was publicized on a local radio station and on the nationale radio (Radio-Canada). It attracted contributors and interested contributors from the community as well. The Wikipetia atikamekw holds over 160 articles. The last article, before this project, was created in 2014. The project was stopped because of a lack of resources.

See media coverage of the project on the national radio.

Activities and Calendar[edit]

Training and discussion sessions with the Atikamekw community[edit]

Several training and discussion sessions with the atikamekw community will be held so that local project partners become autonomous in their work on Wikimedia projects and in the translation of the Mediawiki interface. Discussions with community authorities will take place to establish ethics guidelines for copyright on Wikimedia projects and their consistency with Atikamekw's traditional knowledge transfer methods.

List of sessions:

  1. Training session will be held at the Otapi school of Manawan (24 October 2016)
  2. Training and discussion session at the central Council of the Atikamekw Nation at La Tuque (25 November 2016)
  3. Photo documentation and discussion session in Manawan (May 2017)

Pedagogic project[edit]

The pedagogic project will be held from September 2016 to May 2017 at Otapi High School in Manawan. It will be the third edition of a pedagogic project at Manawan's Otapi High School, building on the successes of the previous editions (as shown in the section "Scope" above). The project was elaborated in collaboration with Sakay Ottawa (interim director of the school) and Luc Patin (user:Bilbo40). The main aim of the project is to use Wikipedia as a teaching tool for the transmission of the Atikamekw language. Highschool students will be trained as part of their computer classes by their teacher. Additional training will be proposed in the form of extracurricular activities. In the project context, students will create articles written in Atikamekw in the Atikemekw Wikipedia within the Wikimedia Incubator, under the supervision of their teacher and with the support of the language keeper of the community (Jean-Paul Echaquan), as well as the online technical support of an experienced Wikipedian with smaller projects in indigenous languages (Amqui) and an experienced Wikipedian with pedagogic projects (Benoit Rochon). Our local coordinator will also help monitoring atikamekw content and activity on the Atikamekw Wikipedia.

Research and Outreach project[edit]

These activities will build on the insights gathered from activities and discussion in Manawan and La Tuque. Their goal is to document the project, provide recommendations, and transfer the knowledge acquired into the French Wikipedia.

Activities:

  1. Gathering of documentation (automn 2016): a student employed by the Canada Research Chair in Indigenous Governance at the University of Quebec in Outaouais will work on gathering a bibliography and write a literature review.
  2. Research seminar at University of Quebec in Outaouais (winter 2017): the subject of the seminar concerns the compatibility between the modes of transmission of indigenous knowledge and the protocols of the Wikimedia projects.
  3. Edit-a-thon Workshop (spring 2017): an edit-a-thon workshop will be held simultaneously at several locations, the Otapi School in Manawan, the Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec in Montreal and the Université du Québec, 'With an online participation with the aim of writing articles on atikamekw subjects on Wikipedia in French, mainly on subjects deemed most important by the atikamekw community.
  4. Panel at Wikimania Montreal (August 2017): presentation of the results of the project and discussion with the other chapters of the Wikimedia Foundation which have missions concerning indigenous communities. The presentation will take place even if it is not accepted by the organizing committee of Wikimania, it will then take place at the Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec.
  5. Collection of information for the writing of a research to be published in an open scientific journal.

Participants[edit]

See: Atikamekw knowledge, culture and language in Wikimedia projects/List of participants

Coordination team[edit]

Name (username) Responsibilities Experience
Jean-Philippe Béland (Amqui)
Email : jpbeland@wikimedia.ca
Coordination of training, online assistance and coordination of the translation of MediaWiki, management of the grant of the Wikimedia Foundation

Vice President of Wikimedia Canada, administrator of the French Wikipedia and Wikipetia Atikamekw Nehiromowin, participating in Project:Wikipetia Atikamekw, creator of the Wikipedia Atikamekw Nehiromowin, founder of the projects Wikipedias Coordination in Canada's Aboriginal languages, Wikimedia indigenous languages and Aboriginal communities awareness Project Wikimedia Canada.

Nathalie Casemajor (Seeris) Coordination of research activities and panel at the Wikimania conference University Professor of Communication at the of Quebec in Outaouais. Experienced in coordinating educational projects, GLAM projects (Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, Mile End Library) and organizing contribution workshops.
Jean-Paul Echaquan (‎Jean-paul echaquan)
Courriel : poktcietcabwan@gmail.com
Coordinator of the project, local coordination, support to the educational project, responsible for the quality of the content in Atikamekw Guardian of the language of the community of Manawan, employed by the Council Atikamek of Manawan, member of the community Atikamekw.
Karine Gentelet Co-researcher Professor of Aboriginal Studies, Department of Social Sciences, University of Quebec in Outaouais. Affiliated with the Canada Research Chair in Aboriginal Land Governance.
Thérèse Ottawa Administrator of Wikipetcia Atikamekw Nehiromowin Multimedia Technician and Executive Secretary of the Educational Services
Nastasia Herold (Kiackw) Coordination of archives research, support for linguistic activities and relations with partners Linguist (MA, currently a doctoral candidate at the University of Leipzig), specialist in digital humanities and Atikamekw studies, initiator of the Project:Wikipetia Atikamekw and Wikipedia Atikamekw.
Sakay Ottawa (Saguitare) Support for the pedagogical project and the relationship between partners Director of Otapi High School in Manawan (Portrait by Radio-Canada), member of the Atikamekw community.
Luc Patin (Bilbo40) Coordinator of the pedagogical project Professor of Computer Science at Otapi High School in Manawan, Project Manager Projet:Wikipetia Atikamekw.
Nicole Petiquay (Ninmeka) Support for translation and contact with ILA Techno-linguist at the Atikamekw Language Institute (ILA), Council of the Atikamekw Nation (CNA), member of the Atikamekw community.
Benoit Rochon (Benoit Rochon)
Courriel : brochon@wikimedia.ca
Coordination of Wikimedia community outreach activities, training support, on-line support, grant management from the Wikimedia Foundation President of Wikimedia Canada, administrator of Wikipedia in French, Wikipetia Atikamekw Nehiromowin and Wikimedia Commons, experienced in GLAM projects, awareness et teaching.
Thibault Martin Co-researcher Professor of Aboriginal Studies, Department of Social Sciences, University of Quebec in Outaouais. Canada Research Chair in Aboriginal Land Governance.
To confirm Literature review Student at the Université du Québec en Outaouais.
Anthony Dubé Support for local coordination Professor at Otapi High School in Manawan and member of the Atikamekw community.
Gabrielle Champagne Support for coordination Student at the Institut National de la recherche scientifique (INRS).

Contacts[edit]

If you would like to receive news of the project, subscribe to the mailing list

If you need specific information or questions about the project, contact a coordinator from the contact list above.

Facebook group of Wikipetia Atikamekw Nehiromowin.

Funding[edit]

Grant of the Wikimedia Foundation: Metawiki:Grants:PEG/Atikamekw knowledge, culture and language in Wikimedia projects

Official Partners[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

On Indigenous knowledge, digital tools and Wikipedia
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  • Dupré, Florence (2010) "IsumaTV, les enjeux virtuels d’un réseau d’artistes inuit – Entretien avec Stéphane Rituit", Cahiers du CIÉRA, 5, p. 17-27.
  • Gallert, Peter and van der Velden, Maja (2015) "The sum of all human knowledge? Wikipedia and Indigenous Knowledge", In At the Intersection of Indigenous and Traditional Knowledge and Technology Design. Informing Science Press, p. 117-133.
  • Gallert, Peter (2014) "Tapping into the knowledge of indigenous communities", WMF Blog, December 12, 2014.
  • Gallert, Peter and van der Velden, Maja (2013) "Reliable Sources for Indigenous Knowledge: Dissecting Wikipedia’s Catch–22". Book chapter on the relationship between English Wikipedia and indigenous knowledge.
  • Gallert, Peter (2013) "Indigenous knowledge for Wikipedia: Bending the rules?", talk at Wikimania (video here).
  • Lachapelle, Marise, Dupré Florence (ed.) (2010) "Cyberespaces et médiatisation des cultures" Cahiers du Ciéra, n ̊ 5, Université Laval, Québec.
  • Singleton, Rola-Rubzen, et al. (2009) "Youth empowerment and information and communication technologies: A case study of a remote Australian Aboriginal community", GeoJournal, 74(5), p. 403-413.
  • van der Velden, Maja (2013) "Decentering Design: Wikipedia and Indigenous Knowledge" International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 29, 4, p. 308-316.
  • van der Velden, Maja (2012) "Designing for Culture: An Ecological Perspective on Indigenous Knowledge and Database Design", In New Media and Intercultural Communication: Identity, Community and Politics, Peter Lang Publishing Group, p. 21-38.
  • van der Velden, Maja (2011) "When Knowledges Meet: Wikipedia and other stories from the contact zone", In Critical point of view: a Wikipedia reader, Institute of Network Cultures, p. 236-258.
  • van der Velden, Maja (2010) "Design for the contact zone: Knowledge management software and the structures of indigenous knowledges", In Cultural Attitudes towards Technology and Communication, School of Information Technology, Murdoch University, p. 1-18.
  • Warschauer, Mark (1998) "Technology and Indigenous Language Revitalization: Analyzing the Experience of Hawai’i", The Canadian Modern Language Review/La Revue canadienne des langues vivantes, 55(1), p. 139-159.
On indigenous knowledge and language transmission
On Atikamekw culture, knowledge and language
  • AMAA (Association Mamo Atoskewin Atikamekw) (1994) Rapport Final, Identification et protection de l’usage atikamekw de la forêt, Phase II, Association Mamo Atoskewin Atikamekw et Hydro Québec, La Tuque.
  • Awashish, Chantale (2006) Les anciennes formes d’écriture chez les Atikamekw, Recherche effectuée dans le cadre du projet Kinokewin du Conseil de la Nation atikamekw en collaboration avec l’Université Laval à Québec.
  • Barbeau, Manon (2014) "Genèse atikamekw du Wapikoni mobile", Recherches amérindiennes au Québec, 44(1), p. 123–127.
  • Dubé, Albert (2014) "Entretien avec César Newashish (1902-1994), Manawan", Recherches amérindiennes au Québec, 44(1), p. 104–107.
  • Clermont, Norman (1977) Ma femme, ma hache et mon couteau croche : deux siècles d’histoire à Weymontachie, Série Cultures amérindiennes, ministère des Affaires culturelles, Québec.
  • Charest, Paul (2005) “Les assistants de recherche amérindiens en tant que médiateurs culturels : expériences en milieu innu et atikamekw du Québec”, Études/Inuit/Studies, 29(1-2), p. 115-129.
  • Conseil de la Nation Atikamekw (CNA) (1996) Sommet Aski. La Tuque, Conseil de la Nation Atikamekw, 3-5 décembre 1996.
  • Conseil Atikamekw Montagnais (CAM) (1983) Recherche sur l’occupation et l’utilisation du territoire : Manoane, Conseil Atikamekw Montagnais, Québec.
  • Dandenault, André (1983) “Occupation et utilisation du territoire par les Attikameks de Weymontachie”, in D. Brassard & D. Castonguay (ed.), Rapport de recherche dans le cadre du projet sur l’occupation et l’utilisation du territoire, Conseil Attikamek Montagnais, Village des Hurons, Québec.
  • Davidson, D.S. (1928) “Notes on the Tete de Boule ethnology”, American Anthropologist, 30(1). p. 18-46.
  • Dawson, Nelson-Martin (2003) Des Attikamègues aux Têtes-de-boules, Septentrion, Sillery.
  • Éthier, Benoit (2014) "Nehirowisiw Kiskeritamowina: Acquisition, utilisation et transmission de savoir-faire et de savoir-être dans un monde de chasseurs", Recherches amérindiennes au Québec, 44(1), p. 49-59.
  • Éthier, Benoit (2010) Savoir, pouvoir et territoire. Acquisition et transmission des savoirs liés à l’univers forestier chez les Manawani iriniwok (Atikamekw de Manawan). Mémoire de maîtrise, Université Laval, Québec.
  • Gélinas, Claude (2003) Entre l’assommoir et le godendart. Les Atikamekw et la conquête du Moyen-Nord québécois 1870-1940, Septentrion, Québec.
  • Gélinas, Claude (2000) La gestion de l’étranger. Les Atikamekw et la présence eurocanadienne en Haute-Mauricie 1760-1870, Septentrion, Québec.
  • Houde, Nicolas (2014) "La gouvernance territoriale contemporaine du Nitaskinan: Tradition, adaptation et flexibilité", Recherches amérindiennes au Québec, 44(1), p. 23-33.
  • Houde, Nicolas (2011) Experimenting with what will become our traditions: Adaptive co-management as a bridge to an Atikamekw Nehirowisiw post-treaty world in Nitaskinan. Thèse de doctorat, départment de géographie, Université McGill, Montréal.
  • Jérôme, Laurent (2010) Jeunesse, musique et rituels chez les Atikamekw (Haute- Mauricie, Québec) : ethnographie d’un processus d’affirmations identitaire et culturelle en milieu autochtone, Thèse de doctorat, département d’anthropologie, Université Laval, Québec.
  • Jérôme, Laurent (2008) “Faire (re)vivre l’indien au cœur de l’enfant : ritualisation et pouvoirs des rituels de la première fois chez les Atikamekw” Recherches amérindiennes au Québec, 38(2¬3), p. 45-¬54.
  • Jérôme, Laurent (2008) “L’anthropologie à l’épreuve de la décolonisation de la recherche dans les études autochtones. Un terrain politique en contexte Atikamekw”, Anthropologie et Sociétés, 32(3), p. 179-196.
  • Jérôme, Laurent (2007) “Identification, relations et circulation des savoirs chez les Atikamekw de la Haute Mauricie. Un regard ethnographique sur le tewehikan”, in F. Laugrand et J. oosten (ed.), La nature des esprits dans les cosmologies autochtones, Presses de l’Université Laval, Québec, p. 479-¬496.
  • Jérôme, Laurent and Veilleux Vicky (2014) "Witamowikok, «dire» le territoire atikamekw nehirowisiw aujourd’hui: Territoires de l’oralité et nouveaux médias autochtones”, Recherches amérindiennes au Québec, 44(1), p. 11-22.
  • Lavoie, Kathia (1999) Savoir raconter ou l’art de transmettre. Territoire, transmission dynamique et relations intergénérationnelles chez les Wemotaci iriniwok (Haute-Mauricie). Mémoire de maîtrise, département d’anthropologie, Université Laval, Québec.
  • Mattawa, Jean-Pierre (2014) "Entretien avec Guillaume-Charles Weizineau (1929-2006), Opitciwan", Recherches amérindiennes au Québec, 44(1), p. 108–113.
  • Ottawa, Éva (2014) “Construire notre avenir en misant sur notre héritage ancestral”, Recherches amérindiennes au Québec, 44(1), p. 115–117.
  • Ottawa, Gilles (2002) Ka ki aicinikatakik Nimocominanak otaskiwaw (Les toponymes autochtones : Héritage de nos ancêtres), Manawan.
  • Ottawa, Gilles (1993) Nehirowatcihowin – Les Activités traditionnelles Atikamekw selon les six saisons, Projet Illustration des Activités traditionnelles selon les six saisons Atikamekw.
  • Poirier, Sylvie (2014) “Atikamekw Kinokewin, « la mémoire vivante »: Bilan d’une recherche participative en milieu autochtone”, Recherches amérindiennes au Québec, 44(1), p. 73-83.
  • Poirier, Sylvie (2013) “The Atikamekw. Reflections on their changing world”, In B. Morrison & C.R. Wilson (eds.) Native Peoples: The Canadian Experience, Fourth edition, Oxford University Press, p. 146-167.
  • Poirier, Sylvie (2012) "Atikamekw Kinokewin : Bilan d'une recherche collaborative en milieu autochtone" (video), conference presentation, FSSULTV https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k6Rh8cWksWw
  • Poirier, Sylvie (2001) ”Territories, identity and modernity among the Atikamekw (Haut St¬Maurice, Québec)”, in Colin Scott (dir), Aboriginal autonomy and development in Northern Quebec and Labrador, UBC Press, Vancouver, p. 98-116.
  • Poirier, Sylvie (2001) “Territories, Identity and Modernity Among the Atikamekw (Haut Saint-Maurice, Québec)”, In C. Scott (ed.) Aboriginal Autonomy and Development in Northern Quebec and Labrador, Vancouver, UBC Press, p. 98-116.
  • Poirier, Sylvie, et Niquay, Jean-Marc (1999) Le droit coutumier atikamekw. Pistes de réflexion, Rapport de recherche, Conseil de la Nation Atikamekw, La Tuque.
  • Poirier, Sylvie, Jérôme, Laurent et la Société d’histoire Atikamekw (Nehirowisiw Kitci Atisokan) (2014) "Présentation. Les Atikamekw Nehirowisiwok : territorialités et savoirs", Recherches amérindiennes au Québec, Volume 44, numéro 1, 2014, p. 3-10.
  • Quitish, Antoine (2014) “Entretien avec Athanase Jacob (1907-1986), Manawan”, Recherches amérindiennes au Québec, 44(1), p. 95–104.
  • Société d’histoire Atikamekw (Nehirowisiw Kitci Atisokan) (2014) "Tapiskwan sipi (la rivière Saint-Maurice)", Recherches amérindiennes au Québec, 44(1), p. 85-93.
  • Société d’histoire Atikamekw and Jérôme Laurent (2009) “Nehirowisiw kitci atisokan. Vers une réappropriation de l’histoire Atikamekw”, Cahiers du CIÉRA, 4, p. 19-30.
  • Trudel, Pierre (2014) “Entrevue avec Constant Awashish, Grand Chef du Conseil de la Nation Atikamekw”, Recherches amérindiennes au Québec, 44(1), p. 119–121.
  • Wyatt, Stephen (2006) ““Si les autres le font, pourquoi pas nous?” La quête des Atikamekw de Wemotaci pour un rôle dans la foresterie au Nitaskinan”, Recherches amérindiennes au Québec, 36(2¬3), p. 9¬-18.
  • Wyatt, Stephen (2004) Co-existence of Atikamekw and industrial forestry paradigms: Occupation and management of forestlands in the St-Maurice river basin, Québec. Thèse de doctorat, Faculté de foresterie et de géomatique, Université Laval, Québec.
  • Wyatt, Stephen, et Yvon Chilton (2003) L’Occupation contemporaine du territoire atikamekw : Une étude sur les activités et les enjeux de l’occupation du territoire par les Atikamekw de Wemotaci, Faculté de foresterie et de géomatique, Université Laval, Québec, et Conseil des Atikamekw de Wemotaci, Wemotaci.
On post-colonial methods
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research (2009) Aboriginal knowledge translation: Understanding and respecting the distinct needs of Aboriginal communities in research, Institute of Aboriginal Peoples’ Health.
  • Clammer, John, Poirier S. and Schwimmer É. (2004) Figured Worlds: Ontological Obstacles in Intercultural Relations, University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
  • Gentelet, Karine and Vaugrante, Béatrice (2014) "Pour lutter contre le racisme et la discrimination envers les Autochtones: une approche systémique et de la volonté politique", 9(1), p. 5-9.
  • Goulet-Langlois, Maxime (2014) "De nation à nation : la médiation intellectuelle et culturelle alliée à la présomption d'égalité des intelligences et des cultures", Observatoire international sur le racisme et les discriminations, 9(1), p. 19-24.
  • Goulet-Langlois, Maxime (2015) "Canada-Québec : La médiation intellectuelle, portrait d'une pratique philosophique à la croisée du concept et de l'affect", Diotime, n°66,.
  • Lévesque, C., Salée D., Cloutier É., et Manningham S. (2013) La coconstruction des connaissances en contexte autochtone : modalités, contraintes, perspectives, Cahier DIALOG, Montréal : Réseau DIALOG et INRS.
  • Poirier, Sylvie (2000) "Contemporanéités autochtones, territoires et (post)colonialisme" Anthropologie et Sociétés, 24(1), p. 137-153.
  • Simpson, Leanne (2001) "Aboriginal Peoples and Knowledge: Decolonizing our Processes", The Canadian Journal of Native Studies, 21(1), p. 137-148.
  • Smith, Linda Tuhiwai (1999) Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples, Zed Books, Londres.
  • Thibault, Martin (2013) "Normativité sociale et normativité épistémique. L’exemple de la recherche en milieu autochtone", Socio"", 1(1) p.135‑154.
  • Wilson, Shawn (2008) Research is Ceremony. Indigenous Research Methods, Fernwood Publishing, Halifax.

Press review[edit]

English
Français

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Template:Reflist

  1. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, The Survivors Speak, 2015.